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ED1 Family reading to young children: Percentage of children ages 3–5a who were read to 3 or more times in the last week by a family member by child and family characteristics and region, selected years 1993–2012

excel icon ED1 Excel Table

Characteristic 1993 1995 1996 1999 2001 2005 2007 2012
Total 78.3 83.7 82.5 81.7 84.1 85.7 83.3 82.8
Gender
Male 77.4 83.3 81.5 81.0 82.1 84.7 80.9 81.6
Female 79.2 84.1 83.6 82.4 86.1 86.8 85.7 84.1
Race and Hispanic originb
White, non-Hispanic 84.8 89.6 88.9 88.9 89.4 91.9 90.6 90.5
Black, non-Hispanic 65.9 74.2 74.7 72.3 76.7 78.5 78.0 77.1
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 68.8 78.9 81.0 81.1 87.4 84.4 87.5 76.8
Hispanic 58.2 60.2 64.9 61.8 70.7 71.8 67.6 71.1
Poverty status
Below 100% poverty 67.5 74.8 72.2 69.1 73.7 77.8 70.5 73.5
100–199% poverty 75.5 82.3 79.0 79.5 80.6 82.7 81.0 80.6
200% poverty and above 86.4 89.1 90.7 88.7 89.8 90.2 89.4 87.9
Family type
Two parentsc 81.1 85.2 86.4 84.9 86.7 86.5 84.8 85.1
Two parents, married 87.2 87.2 87.5 86.5
Two parents, unmarried 81.4 79.1 55.7 76.2
One parent 70.8 79.0 73.6 74.2 75.7 82.8 76.9 77.1
No parents 70.3 86.0 64.9 72.0 83.9 83.1 83.8 74.4
Mother’s highest level of educationd
Less than high school 59.7 64.6 60.9 62.6 69.0 64.2 55.7 72.0
High school diploma or equivalent 75.5 79.1 79.0 77.0 80.8 82.4 73.7 75.9
Some college, including vocational/technical/
associate’s degree
83.3 88.3 88.1 84.9 85.6 88.3 85.8 85.2
Bachelor's degree or higher 90.0 93.9 94.6 92.1 93.9 93.1 94.9 92.8
Mother’s employment statusd
Worked 35 hours or more per week 77.9 81.2 82.0 80.7 83.5 83.2 81.4 83.0
Worked less than 35 hours per week 81.5 89.9 86.6 83.5 89.4 89.3 90.1 87.1
Looking for work 70.9 77.5 77.3 73.3 76.5 89.4 68.7 80.7
Not in labor force 78.9 83.4 82.0 83.9 83.1 85.1 83.4 83.4
Regione
Northeast 82.4 85.7 85.4 85.5 85.1 89.1 85.8 87.8
South 75.0 82.0 80.5 79.3 83.0 82.7 82.3 80.8
Midwest 81.3 86.5 82.8 86.8 86.5 88.6 87.8 84.6
West 76.4 80.8 82.3 76.1 82.3 85.2 78.8 80.8
—Not available.
a Estimates are based on children who have yet to enter kindergarten.
b From 1993 to 2001, the 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards for data on race and ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. In 2005 and later years, the revised 1997 OMB standards were used. Under these standards, persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. For 2005 and later years, when separate reporting was possible, respondents who reported the child being Asian or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander were combined for continuity purposes. Included in the total but not shown separately are American Indian or Alaska Native respondents and respondents of two or more races. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
c Refers to adults’ relationship to child and does not indicate marital status. Data for 2007 and 2012 include same-sex parents.
d Children without mothers or female guardians in the home are not included in estimates.
e Regions: Northeast includes CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, and VT. South includes AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, and WV. Midwest includes IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, OH, SD, and WI. West includes AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, and WY.
NOTE: NHES:2012 was a self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire that was mailed to respondents, while NHES administrations prior to 2012 were administered via telephone with an interviewer. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012 and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change from telephone to mail. Some data have been revised from previously published estimates.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Surveys Program.