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FAM3.A Child care: Primary child care arrangements for children ages 0–4 with employed mothers by selected characteristics, selected years 1985–2011

excel icon FAM3A Excel Table

Type of child care (during mother’s work hours) 1985 1988 1990 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2002 2005 2010 2011
Percent
Total
Mother carea 8.1 7.6 6.4 8.7 6.2 5.4 3.2 3.0 3.2 4.4 4.4 3.6
Father carea 15.7 15.1 16.5 20.0 15.9 16.6 17.7 17.1 17.5 17.3 18.6 19.5
Grandparent care 15.9 13.9 14.3 15.8 17.0 15.9 17.5 19.7 18.6 19.6 19.4 20.5
Other relative careb 8.2 7.2 8.8 7.7 9.0 5.5 7.4 8.0 6.2 6.6 5.8 5.3
Center-based carec 23.1 25.8 27.5 23.1 29.9 25.1 20.4 21.0 24.3 23.8 23.7 24.1
Other nonrelative cared 28.2 28.9 25.1 23.3 21.6 28.4 20.2 18.8 17.2 16.0 13.5 13.1
Othere 0.8 1.6 1.3 1.6 1.1 2.9 13.7 12.4 13.0 12.0 14.1 14.0
Race and Hispanic origin of motherg
White
Mother carea 5.8 3.7 3.2 3.5 4.8 4.2 3.8
Father carea 17.8 18.7 18.1 18.4 18.4 19.0 20.1
Grandparent care 15.5 16.5 17.7 17.9 19.2 19.4 20.3
Other relative careb 4.5 6.5 7.6 4.9 5.5 5.6 4.4
Center-based carec 24.3 19.8 20.1 23.2 22.4 23.2 22.7
Other nonrelative cared 29.0 21.2 20.9 18.4 17.1 14.2 14.3
Othere 2.9 13.6 12.1 13.5 12.4 13.9 14.4
White, non-Hispanic
Mother carea 6.1 4.0 3.2 3.7 4.9 4.3 4.2
Father carea 17.6 18.9 18.1 19.1 19.3 18.9 19.0
Grandparent care 15.4 15.3 17.0 16.5 17.5 17.8 19.2
Other relative careb 4.0 5.7 6.2 3.6 3.8 4.0 3.6
Center-based carec 24.8 21.0 22.2 24.3 24.5 24.9 24.5
Other nonrelative cared 29.4 21.1 21.3 19.6 17.7 15.3 15.3
Othere 2.7 13.9 12.0 13.3 12.0 14.4 14.2
Black
Mother carea 2.1 0.7 1.8 1.2 3.1 4.1 2.8
Father carea 8.8 11.9 12.9 13.5 12.3 14.3 13.7
Grandparent care 16.0 23.7 25.1 21.6 19.5 20.3 21.1
Other relative careb 9.9 13.2 10.6 12.6 10.9 8.1 12.1
Center-based carec 32.5 25.8 27.0 27.4 29.6 26.5 28.3
Other nonrelative cared 28.3 14.3 13.1 14.3 13.3 11.2 7.4
Othere 2.3 10.2 9.4 9.2 11.1 15.0 14.6
Black, non-Hispanic
Mother carea 2.2 0.8 1.9 1.2 3.3 3.9 2.9
Father carea 8.9 11.7 12.4 13.2 11.9 13.9 12.1
Grandparent care 15.7 23.9 24.4 22.9 19.5 21.5 22.0
Other relative careb 10.1 13.0 10.9 12.0 11.3 8.4 11.0
Center-based carec 33.2 26.4 27.5 27.0 29.5 27.2 29.6
Other nonrelative cared 27.9 13.9 13.5 13.7 13.2 9.6 7.1
Othere 1.9 10.3 9.3 9.9 11.2 15.2 15.3
Hispanic
Mother carea 3.6 1.3 2.6 2.7 3.4 3.4 1.7
Father carea 19.0 17.5 18.6 15.1 14.7 19.7 26.0
Grandparent care 17.0 23.2 21.9 23.9 27.0 25.9 24.8
Other relative careb 8.7 12.6 14.0 12.0 12.8 11.7 9.3
Center-based carec 20.8 12.4 10.9 19.8 14.2 15.2 13.6
Other nonrelative cared 25.0 21.7 18.2 13.9 14.2 11.5 9.9
Othere 5.8 11.4 13.6 12.6 13.7 11.7 14.6
Educational attainment of mother
Less than high school
Mother carea 6.3 3.6 1.7 4.1 5.4 2.1 4.0
Father carea 18.2 17.5 14.4 19.2 22.3 24.3 17.0
Grandparent care 21.2 18.4 23.4 15.5 16.7 17.8 18.2
Other relative careb 10.8 15.2 20.7 12.0 15.4 15.8 16.4
Center-based carec 16.9 12.7 16.3 17.5 12.0 8.0 11.5
Other nonrelative cared 20.8 17.3 13.5 17.4 11.7 13.9 8.3
Othere 4.8 15.2 9.9 14.2 16.2 17.0 24.5
High school diploma or equivalent
Mother carea 5.6 2.1 3.5 2.5 4.1 3.7 2.3
Father carea 16.6 19.0 20.3 19.7 16.6 21.3 21.8
Grandparent care 20.5 20.3 23.5 23.2 25.7 22.7 24.0
Other relative careb 5.4 7.8 7.9 6.0 9.4 7.7 8.5
Center-based carec 25.7 18.1 18.8 20.0 18.4 18.2 18.4
Other nonrelative cared 23.2 19.0 14.2 14.5 13.0 11.7 11.7
Othere 2.6 13.6 11.7 13.9 12.7 14.1 13.4
Some college, including vocational/technical/associate's degree
Mother carea 4.9 3.5 1.9 3.2 4.3 6.1 3.4
Father carea 18.4 19.3 16.7 19.3 17.7 19.4 22.3
Grandparent care 14.2 18.5 20.1 20.8 21.9 21.6 21.8
Other relative careb 5.8 7.1 7.4 7.5 6.6 5.1 6.0
Center-based carec 25.6 22.1 18.6 23.2 23.8 22.4 20.6
Other nonrelative cared 27.7 16.6 21.1 15.3 15.5 10.0 13.2
Othere 3.1 12.8 14.1 10.6 10.1 14.8 12.7
Bachelor's degree or higher
Mother carea 5.2 3.7 4.0 3.5 4.6 3.5 4.4
Father carea 14.4 14.9 15.7 13.7 16.6 15.6 16.2
Grandparent care 11.4 13.5 14.4 13.9 13.1 15.5 18.0
Other relative careb 3.4 5.0 4.0 3.4 2.7 4.0 1.2
Center-based carec 26.0 23.5 27.5 29.9 30.5 30.3 32.0
Other nonrelative cared 36.9 26.6 24.4 22.6 19.9 17.7 14.7
Othere 2.3 12.6 9.9 13.0 12.7 12.9 13.5
Poverty status
Below 100% poverty
Mother carea 11.3 9.5 8.1 4.5 3.9 2.9 4.1 7.8 3.9 3.5
Father carea 15.0 26.7 16.2 20.1 18.7 14.5 19.9 19.8 16.2 20.8
Grandparent care 19.4 16.3 20.0 22.4 20.7 23.8 19.7 19.8 23.3 19.6
Other relative careb 11.3 11.4 15.8 7.0 12.3 13.5 10.0 8.8 9.2 11.3
Center-based carec 21.6 21.1 21.0 25.8 14.9 18.3 15.9 18.2 15.4 17.7
Other nonrelative cared 21.1 15.1 18.8 16.5 14.7 18.0 12.6 11.8 12.1 10.6
Othere 0.8 2.7 1.2 3.5 14.6 8.8 17.6 13.7 18.9 16.4
100% poverty and above
Mother carea 7.3 8.5 5.9 5.5 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.8 4.5 3.4
Father carea 15.1 19.4 16.0 16.4 17.7 17.6 17.3 17.1 19.0 19.1
Grandparent care 13.4 15.6 16.0 15.1 17.2 19.3 18.7 19.7 18.7 20.8
Other relative careb 6.8 7.3 8.0 5.3 6.8 7.3 5.7 6.2 5.2 4.0
Center-based carec 27.8 25.1 32.3 24.8 21.2 21.1 25.1 24.8 25.6 25.6
Other nonrelative cared 29.6 24.2 21.8 29.9 20.9 19.4 18.4 16.7 13.9 13.8
Othere 1.6 1.5 1.1 2.8 12.9 12.2 11.7 11.4 12.7 13.3
Regionf
Northeast
Mother carea 5.3 2.7 2.3 2.9 3.5 2.0 2.4
Father carea 22.4 19.0 21.5 21.4 19.3 18.1 19.7
Grandparent care 12.9 19.2 18.7 18.8 20.6 18.0 19.1
Other relative careb 8.0 9.9 7.3 4.4 5.0 4.1 5.3
Center-based carec 24.4 15.9 18.4 24.5 23.2 24.1 22.0
Other nonrelative cared 23.9 19.9 17.9 14.7 15.9 16.2 16.4
Othere 3.0 13.2 13.7 13.1 12.3 17.0 15.1
South
Mother carea 4.3 3.0 3.3 2.1 4.2 2.8 3.3
Father carea 9.3 13.9 12.9 13.4 14.1 14.5 15.5
Grandparent care 17.1 18.1 21.8 20.9 20.9 22.3 22.3
Other relative careb 5.3 5.7 7.6 7.8 6.5 5.1 5.5
Center-based carec 30.7 27.7 26.8 28.0 28.0 28.3 27.5
Other nonrelative cared 30.0 18.2 18.1 15.9 13.0 10.6 9.8
Othere 3.1 13.4 9.3 11.8 13.1 16.2 16.2
Midwest
Mother carea 6.3 3.3 2.0 3.5 5.4 5.6 3.5
Father carea 19.1 22.2 20.3 21.6 18.7 22.3 20.1
Grandparent care 15.4 15.6 16.3 15.9 17.1 17.3 17.8
Other relative careb 5.0 8.0 6.6 3.6 6.5 6.1 4.5
Center-based carec 21.1 16.8 19.9 20.7 21.7 22.0 25.4
Other nonrelative cared 30.9 22.2 24.0 22.6 19.4 15.8 17.4
Othere 2.0 11.7 10.9 11.9 11.0 10.2 11.3
West
Mother carea 5.6 3.8 3.9 4.9 4.3 7.3 5.1
Father carea 18.5 17.9 17.0 17.8 19.9 21.8 25.4
Grandparent care 17.5 17.9 21.4 18.3 19.5 17.7 21.4
Other relative careb 4.1 7.6 10.5 8.1 8.1 8.0 5.9
Center-based carec 23.1 17.4 15.5 19.9 19.7 18.0 18.3
Other nonrelative cared 27.2 20.7 16.7 17.1 17.5 13.6 11.6
Othere 3.8 14.6 14.8 14.0 10.9 12.8 12.3
Family structure
Two married parents
Mother carea 6.2 3.7 3.4 3.5 4.9 5.1 4.3
Father carea 18.7 20.6 19.9 20.6 19.5 20.9 21.6
Grandparent care 14.4 14.7 16.4 17.3 17.6 16.5 19.4
Other relative careb 4.8 6.0 6.4 4.7 4.8 4.1 2.6
Center-based carec 23.0 19.6 20.7 22.7 24.0 24.0 23.9
Other nonrelative cared 29.4 20.9 19.7 17.2 16.3 13.7 13.4
Othere 3.1 14.4 13.4 13.8 12.7 15.1 14.7
Mother only
Mother carea 2.8 1.5 1.9 2.5 3.0 2.5 1.8
Father carea 10.4 9.1 10.1 9.8 12.1 13.3 14.5
Grandparent care 20.5 26.6 29.1 22.7 24.5 26.0 22.9
Other relative careb 7.2 12.3 12.2 10.2 11.0 10.1 11.5
Center-based carec 30.3 23.1 21.5 27.0 23.4 23.0 24.4
Other nonrelative cared 26.1 17.7 17.6 18.4 15.6 13.0 12.5
Othere 2.4 9.5 7.4 9.2 10.2 11.5 12.4
— Not available.
a Mother and father care each refer to care while the mother worked.
b Other relatives include siblings and other relatives.
cCenter-based care includes day care centers, nursery schools, preschools, and Head Start programs.
d Other nonrelative care includes family day care providers, in-home babysitters, and other nonrelatives providing care in either the child’s or provider’s home.
e Other for 1985–1993 includes children in kindergarten or grade school, in a school-based activity, or in self-care. In 1995, it also includes children with no regular arrangement. Beginning in 1997, Other includes children in kindergarten or grade school, self-care, and with no regular arrangement, but does not include school-based activities, as they were deleted as categorical choices for preschoolers.
f Regions: Northeast includes CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, and VT. South includes AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, and WV. Midwest includes IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, OH, SD, and WI. West includes AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, and WY.
g For race and Hispanic-origin data in this table: From 1995 to 2002, following the 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards for collecting and presenting data on race, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) asked respondents to choose one race from the following: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. The Census Bureau also offered an “Other” category. Beginning in 2004, following the 1997 OMB standards for collecting and presenting data on race, the SIPP asked respondents to choose one or more races from the following: White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. The Census Bureau also offered an “Other” category. All race groups discussed in this table from 2004 onward refer to people who indicated only one racial identity within the racial categories presented. People who responded to the question on race by indicating only one race are referred to as the race-alone population. The use of the race-alone population in this table does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. Data from 2004 onward are not directly comparable with data from earlier years. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
NOTE: Employed mothers are those with wage and salary employment or other employment arrangements, including contingent work and self-employment. Data for years 1995 to 2011 were proportionately redistributed to account for tied responses for the primary arrangement so that they total to 100 percent and are comparable to earlier years.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation.