ChildStats.gov—Forum on Child and Family Statistics
faces of children
Home  |  About the Forum  |  Publications  |  Data Sources  |  Help
Search
FAM3.B Child care: Percentage of children ages 3–6, not yet in kindergarten, in center-based care arrangements by child and family characteristics and region, selected years 1995–2012

excel icon FAM3B Excel Table

Characteristic 1995 2001 2005 2007 2012
Total 55.0 56.3 57.1 55.3 61.0
Race and Hispanic origina
White, non-Hispanic 56.9 58.9 59.0 58.4 63.5
Black, non-Hispanic 59.5 63.0 66.5 65.2 68.4
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 59.4 63.4 72.5 65.1 68.4
Hispanic 37.2 39.8 43.5 38.9 51.9
Poverty status
Below 100% poverty 45.6 46.6 47.2 40.6 45.6
100–199% poverty 43.2 48.7 46.5 45.1 51.8
200% poverty and above 65.8 64.0 66.2 65.3 72.1
Family type
Two parentsb 54.8 56.5 56.9 55.4 61.8
Two parents, married 57.3 58.3 56.8 64.1
Two parents, unmarried 46.4 42.8 39.8 47.9
One parent 56.0 55.8 57.7 54.3 58.0
No parents 50.5 55.9 59.6 57.2 65.2
Mother’s highest level of educationc
Less than high school 34.8 38.0 34.9 28.7 42.7
High school diploma or equivalent 47.6 47.3 48.6 43.1 49.8
Some college, including vocational/technical/associate’s degree 56.8 61.4 56.2 54.4 58.2
Bachelor’s degree or higher 74.5 70.0 72.9 71.3 79.4
Mother’s employment statusc
35 hours or more per week 60.2 62.9 63.7 65.4 67.3
Less than 35 hours per week 62.1 61.4 60.8 61.7 66.7
Looking for work 51.8 46.2 42.0 37.8 58.6
Not in the labor force 46.5 46.9 50.2 43.9 51.7
Regiond
Northeast 56.3 63.8 67.0 66.3 69.7
South 58.4 59.1 56.4 55.0 63.9
Midwest 53.8 55.5 54.4 55.8 58.5
West 49.9 47.4 54.2 47.6 53.3
— Not available.
a In 1995 and 2001, the 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards for data on race and ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. In 2005 and later years, the revised 1997 OMB standards were used. Under these standards, persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. For 2005 and later years, when separate reporting was possible, respondents who reported the child being Asian or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander were combined for continuity purposes. Included in the total but not shown separately are American Indian or Alaska Native respondents and respondents of two or more races. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
b Refers to adults’ relationship to child and does not indicate marital status. Data for 2007 and 2012 include same-sex parents.
c Children without mothers or female guardians in the home are not included in estimates.
d Regions: Northeast includes CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, and VT. South includes AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, and WV. Midwest includes IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, OH, SD, and WI. West includes AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, and WY.
NOTE: Center-based programs include day care centers, prekindergartens, nursery schools, Head Start programs, and other early childhood education programs. NHES:2012 was a self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire that was mailed to respondents, while NHES administrations prior to 2012 were administered via telephone with an interviewer. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012 and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change from telephone to mail.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Surveys Program.